Resources for NAMA Development
The development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action is composed of a number of stages. These stages include: 1.Assessment of the technical and political context in a country, 2. The identification and selection of mitigation options 3. Detailed NAMA development, 4. Implementation and monitoring, 5. Reporting and verification (MRV).
This page offers a basic guide to the major components of NAMA development, including templates for key documents. Click on one of the headings below to expand the information.
▼ Planning a NAMA
The first step in the development of a NAMA is selection and agreeing on a sector and/or action. In some cases the government has a clear preference, whereas in others there is a need for a prioritisation and selection process. Existing low-emission development strategies and national development priorities can provide a good starting point for the selection of the NAMA and the appropriate level of ambition.
NAMA development does not have to start ‘from scratch’ as some may think: often there is much to build on in terms of existing policies and support programmes.Since NAMAs are a relatively new concept, and the preparation and implementation requires collaboration across different government bodies, it helps considerably to have an individual or institutional ‘NAMA champion’ who promotes the idea and is a driving force behind the NAMA. Framing has proven to be an important consideration, since the ‘logical’ association with GHG mitigation may not be appealing to everyone involved. For example, it is often more convincing to stakeholders to talk about renewable energy rather than mitigation targets.
▼ Seek international technical assistance
A increasing number of developed country governments, development agencies and multilateral organisations are offering financial and technical support for the development of NAMA concepts and proposals. Browsing the contents of the NAMA Database website gives an overview of some of the specific organisations working in this field.The NAMA Database provides a platform for NAMA developers to showcase their ideas. Furthermore, the UNFCCC NAMA registry includes an area for NAMAs seeking support for development, as well as implementation. NAMA proponents could also contact potential funders directly to register their intentions to recieve international support. For further information, and specific advice on this issue, contact the NAMA Database.
▼ Engaging stakeholders
Government actions that seek to transform sectors and industries, require trust and cooperation from stakeholders inside and outside government (e.g. ministries and agencies, sector representatives, financing sector, and civil society). These same stakeholders can play a crucial role in the preparation phase by providing factual and creative input, and by validating findings. Since NAMAs are shaping up in a bottom-up fashion through dialogue rather than by following official guidance or processes, capacity building plays an important role – not least to help shape preferences and attitudes towards the NAMA concept. A common understanding of the NAMA concept and its objectives can be achieved by providing evidence based analysis and by communicating requirements and impacts tailored to the specific audience.
Most countries don’t have an established process for developing NAMAs, so having a clear plan for engagement of stakeholders and their roles and responsibilities can help avoid surprises. One of the biggest challenges is inter-ministerial coordination and defining who is in the ‘lead’. There is often an interplay between different ministries (sector, planning, finance) and if not managed carefully this could lead to conflict and miscommunication, in particular when finance is on the table.Managing expectations on available finance for NAMAs can be delicate in these early days of NAMA development. One should strike a balance by showing the potential for future climate finance but also highlighting likely limitations of international public funds and the importance of mobilizing national sources. It is also important to recognize that some countries may have hesitations based on past experiences (e.g. the CDM left some countries quite sceptical). As indicated above, framing is an important part of the message. Numbers and analytical results usually do not speak for themselves and need to be used to illustrate a story, make a case, and form a compelling argument.
▼ Analysis and design
Analysis of costs and benefits, barriers, impacts, and risks lies at the heart of NAMA development, and directly feeds into decision making and design. After narrowing the scope and aim, the next logical step is a thorough analysis and understanding of the barriers that inhibit existing policies and efforts from reaching the full transformational potential that is typically aimed for. A barrier analysis is a central piece of NAMA development and gives insight into the scope and nature of the problem.Often barriers can be overcome in different ways, and various combinations of policy instruments and financial delivery structures can work. The solution offered by the NAMA typically has one or more components, across the (UNFCCC) categories of finance, technology transfer, and capacity building. All too often financial or economic barriers are considered to be most significant, while in many countries and sectors capacity barriers, and information and knowledge barriers, can be equally if not more important. For NAMAs to be effective agents for long term change, addressing multiple barriers simultaneously through different types of interventions is needed.
▼ Writing a concept note
▼ Developing a proposal
Developing a NAMA proposal typically requires a team of people in government, supported by external experts. Since NAMA work is new and specialised, teams ideally combine international experts who can build on experience across countries, and local experts who have different and often better access to information, and can be credible representatives of the team in the national context.
The proposal provides a detailed picture of the proposed NAMA including the national context and baseline scenario, the rationale for activities and details of implementation and MRV. The proposed template is a structured Word template which should present sufficient information to allow potential funders for NAMAs to take a funding decision. Supporting information and detailed calculations are included in appendices.With the launch of the UNFCCC NAMA registry in 2013, NAMAs are supposed to be submitted directly via the registry after log in. For further information please look at the official UNFCCC website.